Flash burst charges and whistle mix

Posted by Mike 12/09/2016 0 Comment(s)

Chapter 6: Flash, burst charges and whistle mix

Flash #1
Source: Lancaster[2], listed as ?Thunder #1'.
Comments: The sulfur can be replaced by antimony trisulfide and the sound of a salute made with this composition will change very little.
Preparation:

potassium perchlorate.............................50
Aluminum..........................................23
sulfur............................................27

Flash #2
Source: rec.pyrotechnics, Listed as ?Ellern #121' in Ellern [4].
Comments: 
Preparation:

potassium perchlorate.............................70
Aluminum (dark pyro)..............................30

Flash #3
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments: Larger percentage of aluminum results in a stronger flash. This composition is slightly less sensitive than the usual perchlorate mixtures which also contain sulfur.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................65...70%
Aluminum powder...................................rest (up to 100%)

Flash #4
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Mark Anthony Messina Comments: 
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................3
Aluminum, 400 mesh................................3
Sulfur............................................1

Flash #5
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Bill Nelson Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................50
Sulfur............................................30
Aluminum..........................................20

Flash #6
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Patrick Arnold Comments: Can be ignited by a fairly low temperature flame, and produces a greenish flash when magnesium is used. Burns very fast, and produces a loud report even in an open container.
Preparation:

Magnesium or Aluminum.............................1
Barium sulfate....................................1

Flash #7
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Barrie Hiern Comments: Relatively insensitive.
Preparation:

Barium nitrate....................................4
Alumium (fine mesh)...............................2
sulfur............................................1

Flash #8
Source: PML mailing list, post by Bill Ofca Comments: 
Preparation: Dampen the mix lightly with water and mix thoroughly such that the material is crumbly but then packs tightly into a ball. If it is at all greasy feeling or mushy, there is way too much water. Save some dry mix on the side just in case it becomes too wet during the dampening. Granulate the damp comp by rubbing the packed ball over a 20 mesh screen. Do not use any screens larger than 20 mesh. If the screen plugs, the comp is too damp. Add more dry comp and thoughly mix in. After drying the granulated powder, it can be used in flash bags. About 3 to 5 grams works well in a 3 inch shell. Experimentation is needed to adjust the amount of burst for good results with different stars and shell construction. This powder can also be used ungranulated, in a central flash bag, in larger shells.

Potassium nitrate.................................3
Potassium perchlorate.............................3
Dark aluminum (USB 809)...........................3
Barium nitrate....................................1
Antimony sulfide (CN).............................1
Sulfur............................................1
Dextrin...........................................1/2

Flash #9
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Wouter Visser Comments: The use of permanganate in pyrotechnic compositions is not recommended, since it is unstable and will decompose over time. Also, like all flash mixtures, this mixture is quite sensitive and powerfull. Great care should be taken when handling this mixture.
Preparation:

Potassium permanganate............................12
Aluminum..........................................7
Sulfur............................................10

Flash #10
Source: Shimizu[1], Page 44
Comments: Listed as a report formulation.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................80
Aluminum..........................................27
Sulfur............................................3

Flash #11
Source: Shimizu[1], Page 44
Comments: Listed as a report formulation. Shimizu states that this composition produces the loudest report obtainable with a pottasium perchlorate/aluminum/sulfur composition.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................64
Aluminum..........................................23
Sulfur............................................13

Flash #12
Source: Shimizu[1]. Page 44
Comments: Listed as a report formulation. This composition produces slightly less noise than "Flash #11", but is safer to handle than similar compositions containing sulfur.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................72
Aluminum..........................................28

Flash #13
Source: Lancaster[2], page 120
Comments: Listed as a report formulation
Preparation:

Barium nitrate....................................68
aluminum, dark pyro...............................23
Sulfur............................................9

H3 Bursting charge
Source: Shimizu[1]. Page 207
Comments: This energetic burst charge is used for small diameter shells (2...3 inch), since it makes a large and symmetrical burst possible. Besides the composition below, a ratio of chlorate to hemp coal of 10:3 is also popular. The sensitivity of this mixture to shock and friction is unexpectedly low, as long as the composition does not come into contact with sulfur or sulfur compounds.
Preparation:

Potassium chlorate................................75
Hemp coal (or Paulownia coal).....................25
Glutinous rice starch.............................+2%

Potassium perchlorate bursting charge #1
Source: Shimizu[1]. Page 208. Listed as ?KP burst charge'
Comments: This energetic burst charge can be used for small shells, but is unsuitable for the smallest diameters (2...3 inch). It is much safer to handle than the H3 bursting charge since it contains no chlorates.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................70
Hemp coal (or Paulownia coal).....................18
Sulfur............................................12
Glutinous rice starch.............................+2%

Potassium perchlorate bursting charge #2
Source: Shimizu[1]. Page 210
Comments: Shimizu lists this composition as ?burst charge No. 5'. This compositions sensitivity is quite low, although higher than that of black powder. The explosive force of this composition is lower than that of the ?Potassium perchlorate bursting charge #1'. This burst charge is often used in shells of middle and large diameter (6...10 inch).
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................70
Hemp coal (or Paulownia coal).....................30
Glutinous rice starch.............................+2%

Potassium perchlorate bursting charge #3
Source: Shimizu[1]. Page 210
Comments: Shimizu lists this composition as ?burst charge No. 44'. The potassium bichromate catalyses the decomposition of the potassium perchlorate. This composition's sensitivity is quite low, although higher than that of black powder. The explosive force of this composition is lower than that of the ?Potassium perchlorate bursting charge #1'. This burst charge is often used in shells of middle and large diameter (6...10 inch).
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................70
Hemp coal (or Paulownia coal).....................30
Potassium bichromate..............................5
Glutinous rice starch.............................+2%

Potassium perchlorate bursting charge #4
Source: Shimizu[1]. Page 210
Comments: Shimizu lists this composition as ?burst charge No. 46'. The potassium bichromate catalyses the decomposition of the potassium perchlorate. This composition's sensitivity is quite low, although higher than that of black powder. The explosive force of this composition is higher than that of the ?Potassium perchlorate bursting charge #1', especially when the particle size of the carbon is small.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................70
Hemp coal (or Paulownia coal).....................30
Lampblack.........................................25
Potassium bichromate..............................+5%
Glutinous rice starch.............................+2%

Smokeless flash powder
Source: "Mengen en Roeren"[6], page 224
Comments: 
Preparation:

Zirconium.........................................28
Zirconium hydride.................................7
Magnesium.........................................7
Barium nitrate....................................30
Barium oxyde......................................25
Rice starch.......................................5

Photoflash
Source: Kirk-Otthmer chemical encyclopedia[8]. Chapter 'Explosives and Propellants'.
Comments: Heat of reaction: 8.989 kJ/g, Gas volume: 15 cm3/g, ignition temperature: 700°C, impact sensitivity test: 26% of TNT. half a pound of this flash delivers 120 million candlepowder. It is used in the M120A1 and M112A1 flare cartdriges.
Preparation:

Aluminum (20 micron; atomized)....................40
Potassium perchlorate (24 micron).................30
Barium nitrate (150 micron).......................30

Purple Flash
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments: 
Preparation:

Magnesium.........................................10
Potassium perchlorate.............................10
Cupric oxide......................................3
Strontium nitrate.................................3
PVC...............................................1

Yellow flash
Source: "Spelen met vuur"[9]
Comments: 
Preparation:

Magnesium.........................................1
Sodium nitrate....................................6

Green flash
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments: 
Preparation:

potassium perchlorate.............................6
barium nitrate....................................3
Aluminum powder...................................5

Whistle mix #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Composition from Ellern[4].
Comments: 
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................72.5
Sodium salicylate.................................27.5

Whistle mix #2
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Composition from Ellern[4].
Comments: 
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................30
Potassium dinotrophenate..........................70

Whistle mix #3
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Composition from Ellern[4] and Shimizu[1].
Comments: 
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................70
Sodium benzoate...................................30

Whistle mix #4
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Composition from Oztap
Comments: 
Preparation:

Potassium chlorate................................40
Sodium chlorate...................................10
Potassium nitrate.................................30
Sodium salicylate.................................10
Paraffin oil......................................10
Ferric oxide......................................+0.2

Whistle mix #5
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Composition from Lancaster[2].
Comments: This mixture is quite sensitive to friction and shock.
Preparation:

Potassium chlorate................................75
Gallic acid.......................................25